It is now possible to confirm the performance of a geosynthetic barrier system on a continuing “real-time” basis. While this is relatively new technology the performance has been very impressive. Cost are, of course, higher when installing continuous monitoring, but they are certainly very reasonable relative to the potential costs of spills and environmental contamination at more dangerous and critical sites (hazardous wastes, slurry and mobile liquid containments and sites with existing environmental issues).
Some published papers on this work and application are listed in my publications, or here: Ng H.B., Weir, I and Ramsey B., “ Enhanced Post Installation Liner Integrity Surveys using Electrically Conductive Geomembrane” Proceedings of the 7th ISSMGE conference, Melbourne, Australia, (2014).
Or here: Ramsey B., Liu N., Geutebrück E., “A Field Demonstration: Monitoring of a Leak Location Liner /Geomembrane For Leakage” Proceedings of GeoAmericas 2016, Miami Beach, Florida, (2016).